CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES (IUCD)
is an intrauterine contraceptive device?
An Intrauterine Contraceptive
Devices is a device inserted into the uterine
cavity and left for varying periods of time for
the purpose of contraception. They are usually
made up of polypropylene impregnated with barium
sulphate, for visualizing them on x-rays.
They are many devices of different design. The
commonly used devices are "T" shaped with a horizontal
and a vertical arm. The vertical arm has a copper
wire wrapped around it and two colored threads
at the lower end .These nylon threads (tail) which
protrudes through the cervix into the vagina,
allows you to check your IUCD whether in place
or not .There are hormone-releasing IUCDs available
in the market which are suitable for women with
frequently used IUDís are
T 200 (Cu T-200)
free through government and municipal hospital
based programs The effective life span is a
minimum of 3 years. However recent studies show
it can be used up to 5 years.
The effective life span is 3 years. (Approved
load copper Ė 250 (ML Cu Ė 250 ):
3 years device.
load Copper Ė 375 (ML Cu- 375):
5 years device.
days, one of the most frequently used IUDís in
India. They have relatively less side effects
and failure rate. It is available in sterilized
pack and can be inserted without prior handling,
which is of great advantage.
ML Cu Ė250 has a
recommended life span of 3 years.
ML Cu 375 has life span of 5 years.
- Cu -T 380A
- Cu -T 380 Ag
- Cu -T 380S (slim
Cu-T 380 A has a
life span of 6 years.
Cu-T 380 Ag has a life span of 4 years.
Cu-T 380S has a life span of 2 Ĺ years.
does it work?
of the IUD in the endometrial cavity stimulates
an in flammatory reaction causing release of large
microscopic cells called "macrophages", which
are capable of destroying sperm before they can
get in to the tube to fertilize the egg. Copper
IUDís are also commonly used as an emergency contraceptive
It also prevents the fertilized egg from getting
hold on to the inner uterine surface i.e. implantation.(
Link to implantation in sexual activity.)
is 98% to over 99% reliable in preventing pregnancy.
The newer one, like multiloads ML-Cu-250, ML-Cu-375,
Cu 7 Ė 380 A, are highly effective i.e. >99%
are the advantages?
- The IUD doesnít
require regular supply nor there is any problem
of disposal affecting privacy.
- It does not interfere
- It doesnít have
any systemic side effects.
- It works as soon
as it is inserted. The return of fertility following
removal is immediate.
risk is minimum and doesnít increase with age
as in oral contraceptives. Link to Disadvantages
of O. C. Pills.
only have to check the strings of the Cu T once
a month. (Post menstrually to know if
itís still in place).
are the disadvantages and common side effects?
- Some women report
that their periods become heavier, longer or
more painful. They usually settle down after
a couple of months.
- If you are not
in a monogamous relationship (i.e. If you or
your partner has other sexual partners) you
are at risk of developing Pelvic Inflammatory
- It does not protect
you from sexually transmitted diseases. (STDís)
- It is possible
that your womb could push out the IUCD. This
is more likely in the first 2- 3 months so it
is important to remember to check the IUD, is
still in place.
- The pain following
insertion of IUD is due to uterine cramps, which
usually subsides within a week and is mostly
relived by analgesics. If the pain is persistent,
you may need to consult the health care professional.
- Some women do
get rise in vaginal discharge following insertion,
which usually subsides after 1 month. It is
associated with pain and fever, consult your
health care professional
IUD (progestasert )
shaft of IUD is fitted with a capsule containing
hormone progesterone, which is released in sustained
fashion, giving the desired contraceptive effect.
Life span is one year.
IUD 20 (LNG20, Lernova) (Mirena)
Levonorgestrel is released gradually from the
capsule. Life span is 5 Ė 7 years
IUDís are more effective than other IUDís in
and expulsion rates are lower than other
- Amount of bleeding
reduces significantly so more suitable for women
with heavy periods.
is relatively painful for the patient, as the
device is a little bulky.
increase in number of extrauterine pregnancies
is reported for.
women have reported complaints of breast tenderness,
ache which, usually settles down within 3 months.
- Irregular bleeding
and absence of menses are common with users.
- Infection due
to the adhesions inside the uterus that blocks
the tubal openings.