woman who is sexually active and is not using protection
can become pregnant. It is important to confirm
pregnancy early for various reasons:
section will help you to know for sure if you are
register for antenatal care.
When to see a doctor in
Planning a pregnancy.
terminate unwanted pregnancy. Abortion
in 1st trimester in Complication in pregnancy.
differentiate from other conditions e.g.: menopause,
if older (> 40years).
avoid doing things you should not be doing in
pregnancy. Preconceptional care in Planning a
start doing things which are good for your pregnancy
Preconceptional care in Planning a pregnancy
(What you feel)
Pregnancy through the weeks 5-8 .
period (amenorrhoea): If your menses are delayed
more than 10 days beyond the due date, with previous
periods being regular and you have been sexually
active, there is a very good chance of you having
sickness" (nausea): feeling sick, or vomiting
in the morning (give a link for reasons).
changes: Fullness, prickling sensations and heaviness
in breasts is common. Your breasts may feel painful
to touch also.
problems: Feeling like urinating more often.
(fatigue): feeling unusually tired and lethargic.
fads: Traditionally the image of a woman eating
pickle /"imli" or other sour foods has been used
to suggest pregnancy in Indian movies. There is
some basis to this, as most women develop strong
likes and dislikes for various food items in pregnancy.
Rarely, there could also be craving for
unusual thing such as mud. Cravings in Diet
bodily changes are:
in laboratory testing have now reached a stage
where we have access to easy-to-use reliable pregnancy
test kits over the counter.
pregnancy, the growing tissues of the new conception
(early foetus) secrete a special hormone into
your body called ‘human Chorionic Gonadotrophin’
(hCG). This enters your blood as early as one
week following fertilisation. Physiology of reproduction. This
can be traced from your blood or urine by special
tests. Home tests are done with urine.
upon the type and sensitivity of the test used,
pregnancy can be detected as early as a day or
two from the missed period.
currently available include:
the first week (within 7 days of missed periods)
card (used extensively in India)
one step pregnancy test
(Dr Reddy Laboratory)
Both these tests use the principle of 2 colored
bands appearing if you are pregnant and only one
band appearing if you are not.
Within 2 weeks of missed period: E-commerce
tests need a higher level of hCG before they become
positive. Hence they become positive after five
weeks from the last menstrual period.
to Note :
best results, you must take care that
is collected in a clean, dry container.
morning sample of urine is preferred.
fresh sample is preferable
may happen that a test result comes negative although
you may be, in reality pregnant. This is more
cycles are irregular or are often delayed.
testing has been done very early in pregnancy.In
such cases, if the test is repeated after one
week, it may become positive.
is always advisable to confirm the pregnancy diagnosis
by a qualified medical practitioner as all tests
have their limitations.
First Visit to
As discussed earlier, you may feel certain changes
in your body, which tell you that you are pregnant.Link
to symptoms in Confirming pregnancy. You may have
done a home test to find out. Home Pregnancy Tests
in Confirming pregnancy However, it
is good to consult a doctor to be sure. This is
how your doctor can help you.
( What the Gynaecologist sees / feels)
various subtle changes in your body in pregnancy,
which can be assessed before there are obvious
rate goes up by 10 – 15 beats / minute.
pigmentation increases. You may have a darker
colored "butterfly" distribution rash on the
face (chloasma).Using a sun protection cream
may reduce the pigmentation.
pressure tends to go low.
pigmentation of the areola (area around nipple)
and of the nipples.
of breasts and dilated veins seen over the breast.
Genital tract : Ffemale
in sexual activity.
vaginal discharge (leucorrhoea) is common.
bluish discoloration of vagina and cervix due
cervix and uterus feel soft.
uterus gradually starts increasing in size as
pregnancy advances. However, it is difficult
even for an experienced Gynaecologist, to definitely
confirm pregnancy only by uterine size before
6 weeks from the last period. It is only after
3 months that the uterus can be felt on abdominal
examination. Before that, an internal check-up
advised by Doctor: Investigations and tests.
examining you, your doctor may feel that certain
tests need to be done. In particular, for early
pregnancy you may be advised to do the following
beta – hCG: to confirm the pregnancy if urine
testing is not conclusive, or help to decide
the further treatment in case of complications,
Such as presence of bleeding / spotting in early
pregnancy. Link to complications in pregnancy.
This test is very useful for various gynaecological
conditions, especially pregnancy.
Role of Sonography In Confirming
soon can you know?
sonography, scanning is done through a full
bladder to see the uterus. Depending on the machine
and operator’s experience, you can usually find
small echodense ring ( gestational /pregnancy
sac in which the foetus is suspended or enclosed
) by 6 weeks,
foetal echoes within the gestational sac by
8 weeks latest.
(internal) sonography, The resolution is better
and pregnancy can be picked up earlier, as early
as 4 and half weeks.
it necessary in all cases?
be necessary if:
periods are irregular.
are not sure of your dates.
doctor feels it is advisable.
have any bleeding after missing a period.
is doubt about whether the pregnancy is growing
is suspicion of abnormal pregnancy especially
ectopic or extra uterine pregnancy Link to Complications
of Due Date:
you are sure you are pregnant, the question that
comes to your mind, often, is when are you likely
to deliver.There are various ways to estimate
the due date, but you must remember that it is
never absolutely a certain date. Although majority
of women will deliver within a week before or
after the due date, there may be variations Link
to pre-term labour and prolonged labour in Abnormal
rule: For a woman with regular 28 day cycles,
the expected due date (EDD) can be calculated
by adding 9 calendar months and 7 days to the
first day of the last menstural period (LMP)
LMP 10-06-1999 -------- EDD 17-03-2000
LMP 28-10-1999 ---------EDD 04-08-2000.
your cycles are regular, but either more or
less than 28 days, you can calculate the date
by adjusting the difference from 28.
LMP 10-06-1999, cycles 30 days = EDD 19-03-2000
LMP 28-10-1999, cycles 25 days = EDD 01-07-2000
doctor will usually use this formula and calculate
your date, so do not worry if your maths is
will help you calculate it too!!
to Due Date Calculator
help to confirm due date:
examination by doctor.
Investigations and tests.